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daily current affairs Jan 16

daily current affairs Jan 16

                                                                       NIA

GS II:Statutory, regulatory and various quasi-judicial bodies

Why in the news?Chhattisgarh’s Congress govt challenges NIA Act, a UPA-era law

  • A day after Kerala invoked Article 131 of the Constitution to challenge the Citizenship (Amendment) Act in the Supreme Court, the Congress government of Chhattisgarh too cited the same provision to move the top court, challenging the Constitutional validity of the National Investigation Act, 2008.
  • Article 131, contends that the NIA Act is ultra vires the Constitution and beyond the legislative competence of Parliament since the Act empowers the Centre to create an agency for “investigation” which, notwithstanding the NIA, is carried out by the State Police, a subject matter of the State under Entry 2, List II, Schedule 7.
  • Article 131 of the Constitution states subject to the provisions of this Constitution, the Supreme Court shall, to the exclusion of any other court, have original jurisdiction in any dispute 
(1) between the Government of India and one or more States; or 

(2) between the Government of India and any State or States on one side and one or more other States on the other; or 

(3) between two or more States, if and in so far as the dispute involves any question (whether of law or fact) on which the existence or extent of a legal right depends: 

Provided that the said jurisdiction shall not extend to a dispute arising out of any treaty, agreement, covenant, engagements, and or other similar instrument which, having been entered into or executed before the commencement of this Constitution, continues in operation after such commencement, or which provides that the said jurisdiction shall not extend to such a dispute.

NIA Act concerns:

  • The provisions of the Act leave no room of coordination and pre-condition of consent, in any form whatsoever, by the Central government from the State government which clearly repudiates the idea of state sovereignty as envisaged under the Constitution of India.
  • The scheme of NIA Act is such that once brought in motion, it completely takes away the power of a State to investigate the offences which have been categorised as scheduled offence under the NIA Act and which has been committed within the jurisdiction of the State.
  • Parliament has effectively created a ‘National Police’ which, in cases of investigation of scheduled offences, will have overriding control over the State Police and its investigation which is contrary to the scheme and intention of Distribution of Power as provided in Schedule 7 of the Constitution of India.

                                                                                                                                                        ~Source IndianExpress

                                                                        Sports Authority of India

GS II:Statutory, regulatory and various quasi-judicial bodies

Why in the news?10-year record at SAI: 45 complaints of sexual harassment, 29 against coaches

  • In the last decade, at least 45 complaints of sexual harassment were reported at 24 different government-run sports institutes, data obtained through RTI and official reports has revealed.
  • The accused have been let off leniently, with punishments ranging from transfers to a small cut in pay or pension. However, investigations into almost a dozen complaints have dragged on for years, without any resolution so far.
  • The parliamentary committee, in its report, linked the “power and authority” that the coaches wield to their misdeeds. SAI has internal committees to deal with harassment cases and a code of conduct for the players, but the parliamentary committee noted there are no dos and don’ts for the coaches.

About Sports Authority of India:

  • The Sports Authority of India (SAI), a successor organization of the IXth Asian Games held in New Delhi in 1982, was set up as a Society registered of Societies Act, 1860 in pursuance of the Resolution No. 1-1/83/SAI January 1984 of the Department of Sports, Govt. of India with the objective of promotion of Sports and Games as detailed in the Resolution. 
  • It is also entrusted with the responsibility of maintaining and utilizing, on behalf of the Ministry of Youth Affairs & Sports.
                                                                                                                                                      ~Source IndianExpress

                     Bru tribes

GS I:Salient features of Indian Society, Diversity of India.

Why in the news?Pact to end Bru refugee crisis may be signed today

  • According to the new agreement, approximately 35,000 Bru refugees will settle in Tripura and will be given aid to help with their rehabilitation, the Bru tribals would have settled in Mizoram, but they will now settle in Tripura according to this new agreement.
  • On the cards is individual plots of land with pattas to be given to each Bru family in addition to agricultural land. 
  • Each plot will be of 2,500 sq ft and a stipend of Rs 5,000 per month and free ration will be provided to each family for the next two years. Also, Bru tribals would be included in Tripura’s voter list.
  • The Brus inhabit an area spread across parts of Mizoram, Tripura and the Chittagong Hill Tracts in Bangladesh.
About Bru:

  • Mizoram officials have re-identified 26,128 Bru refugees belonging to 4,278 families lodged in six relief camps in North Tripura district
  • The Brus are in Tripura since late 1997 in the wake of a communal tension triggered by the murder of a forest guard inside the Dampa Tiger Reserve on October 21, 1997 by Bru National Liberation Front militants.
  • The Brus, also referred to as the Reangs, are spread across the northeastern states of Tripura, Assam, Manipur, and Mizoram.
                                                                                                                                                       ~Source IndianExpress

                                                                    International relations

GS II:Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India's interests

Why in the news?US-led Indo-Pacific bloc divisive: Russia minister

  • Russian Foreign Minister strongly criticised the US-led Indo-Pacific initiative, calling it a “divisive approach” to disrupt existing regional structures and contain China’s influence in the region.
  • The Russian minister also slammed the US for what he called disregarding international rules and norms while selectively talking about rules-based global order for its self-interests.
  • Referring to the US-backed Indo-Pacific strategy,  an attempt to “reconfigure the existing structures”, and to move away from the ASEAN-centric consensus for the region.
                                                                                                                                                         ~Source IndianExpress

                                India China relations

GS II:Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India's interests

Why in the news?India, China must find equilibrium in ties: Jaishankar at Raisina Dialogue

  • India and China must find an “equilibrium” and “understanding” on key issues affecting each other asserting that there is no choice but to adopt such an approach.
  • Both countries will have to get along with each other but the challenge is how it will work.
  • A lot of what has happened in the last six months are sort of in the political sphere, but the same mindset was also evident when it came to socioeconomic issues.
  • India’s poor track record of implementation of development projects abroad, as well as challenges in foreign policy domain,the country is a “prisoner of its past image” and must get over it.

                                                                                                                                                  ~Source IndianExpress

                                  Centre-state disputes

GS II:Structure, organization and functioning of the Executive and the Judiciary Ministries and Departments of the Government; pressure groups and formal/informal associations and their role in the Polity.

Why in the news?Centre-state disputes and Article 131

  • The Kerala government has moved the apex court under Article 131 of the Constitution, the provision under which the Supreme Court has original jurisdiction to deal with any dispute between the Centre and a state; the Centre and a state on the one side and another state on the other side; and two or more states. 
  • The Chhattisgarh government filed a suit in the Supreme Court under Article 131, challenging the National Investigation Agency (NIA) Act on the ground that it encroaches upon the state’s powers to maintain law and order.
Supreme court’s jurisdictions:
  • The Supreme Court has three kinds of jurisdictions: original, appellate and advisory.
  • Under its advisory jurisdiction, the President has the power to seek an opinion from the apex court under Article 143 of the Constitution.
  • In its extraordinary original jurisdiction, the Supreme Court has exclusive power to adjudicate upon disputes involving elections of the President and the Vice President, those that involve states and the Centre, and cases involving the violation of fundamental rights.
  • For a dispute to qualify as a dispute under Article 131, it has to necessarily be between states and the Centre, and must involve a question of law or fact on which the existence of a legal right of the state or the Centre depends.
State of Karnataka v Union of India:
  • Supreme Court to accept a suit under Article 131, the state need not show that its legal right is violated, but only that the dispute involves a legal question.
  • Article 131 cannot be used to settle political differences between state and central governments headed by different parties.
                                                                                                                                                       ~Source IndianExpress

                                                              Climate change

GS III:Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment

Why in the news?Climate change: 2010s hottest decade in history, UN says as emissions rise again

  • This decade is set to be the hottest in history, the United Nations in an annual assessment outlining the ways in which climate change is outpacing humanity's ability to adapt to it.
  • The World Meteorological Organization said global temperatures so far this year were 1.1 degrees Celsius (two degrees Fahrenheit) above the pre-industrial average, putting 2019 on course to be in the top three warmest years ever recorded.
  • Man made emissions from burning fossil fuels, building infrastructure, growing crops and transporting goods mean 2019 is set to break the record for atmospheric carbon concentrations, locking in further warming.
  • The world's seas are now a quarter more acidic than 150 years ago, threatening vital marine ecosystems upon which billions of people rely for food and jobs.
  • Heatwaves and floods which used to be 'once in a century' events are becoming more regular occurrences.
  • Nations are currently in crucial talks in Madrid aimed at finalising rules for the 2015 Paris climate accord, which enjoins countries to work to limit global temperature rises to "well below" 2C.
                                                                                                                                                      ~Source IndianExpress

                                                                                            RBI

GS II: Statutory, regulatory and various quasi-judicial bodies

Why in the news?RBI tightens debit, credit card usage norms

  • Tightening the rules for credit and debit card issuance and use in the wake of rising frauds related to card transactions, the Reserve Bank of India (RBI).
  • Banks to allow only domestic card transactions at ATMs and point of sale (PoS) terminals in India at the time of issuance or reissuance of a card.
RBI notification to Banks:
  • The RBI has also asked banks to offer all cardholders the facility to switch on or off and set or modify transaction limits within the overall card limit.
  • Issuers should provide cardholders the facility for enabling ‘card not present’ (domestic and international) transactions, ‘card present’ (international) transactions and contactless transactions, a notification to banks and card issuers.
  • ‘Card not present’ transactions involve furnishing of card number and CVV (card verification value) in transactions executed online. ‘Card present’ transactions need the card for use in PoS or ATM terminals. Contactless transactions are done using RFID technology or near-field communication (NFC).
  • At the time of issue or re-issue, all cards (physical and virtual) should be enabled for use only at contact based points of usage like ATMs and point of sale (PoS) devices within India.
  • Additionally , issuers should provide to all cardholders facility to switch on or off and set or modify transaction limits (within the overall card limit, if any, set by the issuer) for all types of transactions, domestic and international, at PoS, ATMs, online transactions and contactless transactions. 
  • This facility should be offered on a 24×7 basis through multiple channels mobile application, internet banking, ATMs and Interactive Voice Response (IVR). This may also be offered at branches/offices.

                                                                                                                                                    ~Source IndianExpress

daily current affairs Jan 16